Standen

What goes on behind the scenes at Standen House, an Arts & Crafts family home


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From the search terms – William Morris Wallpaper

It seemed like a fun idea to have a look at the search terms through which people come to our house blog. Today’s was what William Morris is famous for – his wallpaper.

And, as you probably know, we at Standen are also known for having lots of examples of Morris & Co wallpapers. Interestingly, some of the most famous Morris & Co. papers weren’t designed by Morris at all, even though they tend to get called William Morris designs.

Here is an idiosyncratic and completely biased round up of some of my favourites.

Fruit (sometimes known as Pomegranate)

This is in the Billiard Room alcove, which was created from a corridor which originally led from the Hall to the Gentlemen’s Lavatories. It has lemons, olive branches and pomegranates in it. Produced in 1864, it is one of Morris’s earliest and most popular designs.

The wallpaper designs were carved onto pearwood blocks to print by hand – each colour needing a different block. Sanderson now own many of the Morris printing blocks.

Standen © National Trust / Jane Mucklow

It’s listed as Pomegranate on our collections website

Trellis

The first paper William Morris designed – except he couldn’t manage the birds so Philip Webb, the architect of Standen, stepped in to draw them. Morris was so annoyed by his inability to draw the birds he practiced and practiced until he could.

My own favourite story about this is from May Morris, William’s youngest daughter. She remembered having Trellis on her bedroom walls as a child, and being thoroughly frightened by one of the birds who looked at her with a gimlet eye.

We have Trellis in a number of places in the house, but perhaps the most interesting is in the Morning Room and Dog Leg Corridors – there are three different types of paper here; the original handblock printed, 1970s roller printed and 2015 digital printed.

Wallpaper_Twitter.jpg

He does look pretty sinister if you ask me

Mallow

This paper is unusual because it was designed by a woman, Kate Faulkner. It used to hang in the Croxley bedroom where the green version of Poppy is now.

We  also uncovered a patch of it on the back stairs and, with the generous assistance of Morris & Co., are going to reinstate the paper up to the bottom of the water tower stairs. Find out more about the work here.

wallpaper-side-entrance_small

The remains of Mallow on the back stairs

Kate Faulkner was sister of Charles Faulkner, one of the original members of “The Firm” as Morris, Marshall, Faulkner & Co. was referred to by the partners. She was employed as an artist and designer and designed other wallpapers, tiles and pottery. She also decorated other things like a piano in gold and silver gesso for the shipping magnate Mr. A. Ionides, neighbour of the Beales in Holland Park.

Golden Lily

A really famous William Morris pattern, but actually designed by J.H. Dearle, Morris & Co.’s chief designer from the 1890s.

Interestingly Dearle started as a shop assistant and, after Morris recognised his ability as a draftsman, went on to become a design apprentice.He eventually became Art Director after Morris’s death in 1896. You can see it on the Morning Room sofa – lots of visitors remember it from Sanderson’s 1970s reprints!

Standen © National Trust / Jane Mucklow

Loose covers on the Morning Room settee

Which of our papers is your favourite?

 

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And the loser is …

When I was talking to the volunteers about their favorite wallpapers, it caused quite a bit of discussion and eventually talk turned to the wallpapers that they did not like quite as much. This was less divisive then picking a favourite. There was one clear loser though in this discussion and it was:

Bachelor's Button

Bachelor’s Button

Bachelor’s Button was designed in 1892, one of the last wallpaper designs by William Morris. This wallpaper consists of a series of cornflowers with acanthus leaves. Bachelor’s button was a common name for cornflowers as they were typically worn by young men in love.

Bachelor’s button could be printed in a variety of colours, however it was most popular as a monotone, with the pattern being printed in a light cream colour on a darker background, such as navy blue or teal. This yellowy/orange tone was quite unusual.

This wallpaper is one of the few original wallpapers left in the house. Most of the wallpapers were replaced in the 1960 due to fading and general deterioration but were as closely matched to the originals as possible. The reason Bachelor’s Button was left untouched was because Margaret Beale had it varnished in 1906. By this point her children were having their own children and Margaret wanted to protect the wallpaper from as much damage as possible from sticky little fingers … This is also why its colour is remarkably unfaded – the colour you see today is very much the colour the Beales’ would have seen.

The reason that a lot of the volunteers disliked this wallpaper was because of its colour and that it was fairly  garish and overwhelming.

Powdered wallpaper

Powdered wallpaper

The second least liked wallpaper was Powdered. This is interesting in that it was also picked as the most liked wallpaper and a couple of weeks ago. Also the opposite reasons were chosen as to why people did not like it as they felt it was too regimented and boring – it does not look natural.

 

 


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And the Winner is …

Following on from my rather mammoth post on how we look after and clean wallpapers, I decided to ask our volunteers what wallpapers they really liked and what one they did not like.

Now with 8 different wallpapers to choose from, picking a favorite one proved to be quite difficult. All eight were chosen by at least one volunteer with very different reasons given as to why. It made an interesting read.

Now the winner is ….

Larkspur Wallpaper

Larkspur Wallpaper

This proved to be by far the most popular of the eight.

Larkspur was designed by William Morris and was first produced in 1872. However, it looked a bit different to what we see now. Originally, Morris designed Larkspur as a monotone, with the pattern being printed in a dark colour, like navy blue and black, on a white background. Fast forward to 1875 and Morris decided to redesign Larkspur to give the pattern more depth and colour. This redesigning meant that it now took 12 blocks to print a square meter of wallpaper. Similar to all Morris wallpapers in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, everything was hand printed. These blocks were incredibly heavy though!

Original Larkspur design

Original Larkspur design

Morris had originally started designing wallpapers in the early 1860s, around the same time as he founded Morris & Co. It was around this time that wallpapers started to be mass-produced. However these mass-produced designs tended to be simple repeating patterns with little depth. Morris’ designs, although expensive, filled this gap in the market providing rich, colourful patterns that drew inspiration from nature and the world around him, a recurring theme in all his work.

The volunteers gave a variety of reasons for choosing Larkspur as their favourite. Most of them loved the soft colours and how pretty and dainty the design was. They all agreed that it is perfect for a bedroom setting with one volunteer remarking that ‘it reminds me of my parents bedroom’ and the lovely memories that seeing the wallpaper triggers.

Powdered wallpaper

Powdered wallpaper

Powdered was a close contender for the title, with similar reasons. They liked how delicate and soft the design and colours are as well as it naturalism.

What is your favourite wallpaper here at Standen?


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Object of the Month March: Webb Table

This oval mahogany table is one of our House Steward’s favorite pieces in the house. Designed by Phillip Webb, the table is supported by 7 legs —a central thick leg and 6 thinner legs with  rounded bulb like decoration. The thinner outer legs have thin bamboo like side stretchers or connections halfway down  whilst similar stretchers connect the central leg to the 6 outer legs. All in all, it is an incredibly well-balanced table with all the legs touching the floor.

Webb Table

Webb Table

Phillip Webb was both a designer of furniture and an architect. It was him who  designed Standen right down to the littlest of details, like the picture hooks.

Phillip Webb

Phillip Webb

Webb trained as an architect in Reading and Oxford. Whilst he was training under G.E. Street in Oxford, he was put in charge of a new apprentice, William Morris, and thus began a life long friendship. Morris soon changed his direction and became a designer. Webb was one of the original founders of Morris’s company, Morris & Co, and soon started producing furniture designs for the firm. Even after Webb resigned, he continued to recommend Morris & Co to his clients, as he did with the Beales at Standen.


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Washing Wallpaper…

Willow Bough wallpaper, William Morris 1887

Willow Bough wallpaper, William Morris 1887

Wallpaper is one those items in a house that seems replaceable; a product of mass production that can be changed to suit your furniture or your mood. However, in the past, wallpaper was an incredibly rare thing and actually very valuable.

Wallpapers started out as a product that the slightly less elite (though still very wealthy) could use in place of tapestries. In fact they were hung like tapestries too – as a large sheet of paper. Now this is around the 16th century so they were hand printed and hand painted. Now as you can imagine, these wallpaper hangings did not last very long and as such not many still survive today – the earliest surviving piece dates to 1509 and is only a very small piece.

Silk Wallpaper found at Polesden Lacey

Silk Wallpaper found at Polesden Lacey

Fast forward to Henry VII and his decision to split the Church of England from the Roman Catholic Church, this caused a huge falling out between trading companies in Europe (especially between France and England) and as the aristocrats no longer had access to large Flemish tapestries that were oh so fashionable and popular so they turned to wallpaper instead.

Hand painted Chinese wallpaper made around 1780

Hand painted Chinese wallpaper made around 1780

By the mid 18th century, England was the leading wallpaper manufacturer in Europe and started to make more affordable designs aimed at the middle classes. As they were more affordable and more available, manufacturers had to make certain wallpapers that would still appeal to the aristocrats and the mega rich so they started experimenting with wallpapers that acted like materials, like leather, silk and velvet. the most popular turned out to be flocked wallpaper, where a designed was pressed onto paper and then pieces of wool or silk were blown across it and they only stuck to the printed design. Oriental designs were also becoming increasingly popular so plain wallpapers were shipped off to the China and Japan, whereupon they were hand painted with oriental designs and images of everyday life.

Along came the 19th century and the development of steam-powered printing presses, this meant that wallpaper became available to everyone, not just the rich and aristocracy. It also heralded an age of more scenic wallpapers with French influences.

By the time of the 20th century, wallpaper had established itself as one of the most popular items in a house but unfortunately its reign had to come to an end and the idea of wallpaper gave way to pain painted walls towards the late 1900s.

Cleaning Wallpapers:

So over the last few hundred years that wallpaper has been around, there have been suggested many different ways of keeping it clean.

Play-Doh - known as Kutol - originally invented as a wallpaper cleaner

Play-Doh – known as Kutol – originally invented as a wallpaper cleaner

As most wallpapers were regarded as insignificant, there was little bother in cleaning them. However,  it where finer wallpapers are involved that it gets interesting. For these wallpapers, light levels were kept to a minimum and some were even varnished to protect them. Some maids dusted the wallpapers whilst others used bread dough to help get rid if dirt. unfortunately bread dough leaves behind traces that insects and molds love or they became greasy and streaky. Play-doh, the beloved children’s toy, was originally invented as a wallpaper cleaner in the 1930s. However, when a classroom of children started using it to make models, the marketing changed and it became a children’s toy.

Nowadays with historic wallpapers we use methods that involve less chemical and avoid taking the wallpaper off the wall unless strictly necessary.

Why we clean wallpaper:

We clean wallpaper in order to preserve it for longer. If we left it dusty or with stains a) it does not look very nice and b) often dirt and stains hide a bigger problem.

Cleaning wallpaper at Standen:

The water stain behind the wallpaper in the South Spare

The water stain behind the wallpaper in the South Spare

We had a similar case with the wallpaper in the South Spare bedroom. With all the rains last spring, one of the chimneys sprung a leak and seeped down through the house. The wallpaper got wet and then later dried out leaving a brown water mark. If we had left the leak the water would eventually have flooded the room and done a lot more damage. By catching it at the water mark stage we managed to repair the leak and re-point the chimney to ensure it is watertight. However with that fixed, the wallpaper needed to be inspected and cleaned to check for any further damage – damp walls tend to grow mold and attract silverfish who eat away layers of paper.  The wallpaper was dampened until the adhesive gave way and the wallpaper sheet was gently peeled away – it takes a lot of skill to keep damp wallpaper in one sheet. It was then wet cleaned – a sponge slightly dampened with a mild soap and water is applied gently to the wallpaper removing the water stains.

Left: Dirty Right: Cleaned

Left: Dirty Right: Cleaned

When the chimney sprung a leak, it also damaged some of the paper in the Larkspur bedroom. This had already been wet cleaned once (which can only be done once in its lifetime) so  historic larkspur wallpaper was pasted over the top – so seamlessly it is difficult to spot which is the original.

Our Wallpaper Conservator cleaning the Trellis wallpaper in the Dog Leg Corridor

Our Wallpaper Conservator cleaning the Trellis wallpaper in the Dog Leg Corridor

while our wallpaper conservator was here we thought it wise to ask him to clean the trellis wallpaper in the dog leg corridor. Being trapped in a small space created by a false ceiling caused dust and dirt to build up. A smoke sponge, was used to clean this wallpaper, gently erasing away any buildups of dirt and marks.

 


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Object of the Month: January – Vase by William De Morgan

Red Luster Vase

Red Luster Vase

Sitting underneath the mother of pearl cabinet in the Hall Alcove, is this two handled Red Luster vase by William De Morgan.

Luster ware pottery has a metallic glaze that makes it look different colors based on what light you view it through. De Morgan rediscovered this technique around 1873—74, after many years of experimentation.

This vase is covered in fish, which was a common theme in De Morgan’s work. He took inspiration form the East,    particularly that of Hispanic and Italian origin, as well as further afield.

De Morgan did not only produce vases, he also produced tiles, other ceramics and stained glass windows. All of which were sold through Morris & Co.

William De Morgan

William De Morgan

De Morgan originally met William Morris when he attended the royal academy of arts. He had quickly become disillusioned by the ideas there and turned to Morris and the Pre-Raphaelite circle.

He set up his first ceramic studio in 1872, in Chelsea but was not very   successful at the start. His early work contained a lots of firing defects and irregularities. By the time he moved to Fulham, his work had become what you see today but he was beset by financial difficulties. Despite regular cash injections by his wife, Evelyn De Morgan an artist in her own right, De     Morgan could not afford to keep the pottery going so it was sold. De  Morgan eventually found success as a writer.

 


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Object of the Month: November: Brass ‘Secessionist’ Mirror

sta0511This mirror was made in  Vienna, Austria around 1900. It is made in the Art Nouveau style, a style favoured by Charles Rennie Macintosh and Gustav Klimt.

 Secessionism refers to a movement in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, where groups of modernist artists split from established schools and thoughts of Art. This first started in Paris and Munich, before moving onto Vienna, Berlin and finally,  Cologne. The best known ‘Secessionist’ movement happened in Vienna and led to the birth of Art Nouveau.

Art Nouveau is inspired by natural forms and structures, like plants, flowers and curved lines. Art Nouveau grew out of the Arts and Crafts movement (although it formed alongside the latter half of this movement) and the designs of William Morris.

Joseph Hoffman, an artist of the Vienna Secessionists, broke away from the Art Nouveau movement to form the Wiener Werkstätte, the Austrian version of the Arts and Craft Movement.